Yeast and Time: Brasserie Au Baron

In what I believe to be my final brewery visit of this year, I made the windy, rural trip to Gussignies, France. It is in this small corner of the world, one little brewery has been consistently pumping out quality for over 30 years.

Brasserie Au Baron is nestled into a fabulous brick structure alongside a creek with a nearby waterfall. The once little brewery is connected directly to the restaurant bearing the same name. Its one of those places that would be glorious to visit in the summer, sadly I was there in mid November; but, at any rate I was not going to miss the opportunity to visit this storied place. I say once little because they have just added 4 20hl fermentors, yay more Au Baron!

Au Baron is known primarily for their blonde/saison/bier de garde ‘Cuvée Des Jonquilles’. Shelton Brothers imports the liquid gold to the states and they have limited distribution around Europe; however, they exist for their local market as over 80% doesn’t leave France. While I wish I could easily source their beer when I am back in Australia, I respect and admire this decision to take care of their home market first. After all, this is really the spirit of Farmhouse brewing, isn’t it?

The Cuvée Des Jonquilles is a highly complex, bone dry, peppery and fruity beer. That being said, when you see it poured, it is immediately apparent that it is also very simple. From this, I don’t mean its common or lacks finesse; rather, its more similar to a table wine or loaf… utilising great materials mixed with experienced techniques to make something that is truly worth its value. If this doesn’t make sense to you, it may be a good idea to read some of my previous posts which talk about the value of restraint in brewing.

Before I visited the brewery, I had only ever tasted one of their beers. When I was at Jester King in October, I was lucky to share a bottle of Noblesse Oblige, the 4% collaboration beer between JK and Au Baron. It was the lightest beer I had ever seen, but wasn’t watery at all. I could tell their yeast was special, so I had to visit. Much to my delight, Au Baron makes a handful of other beers that I was able to try when I visited and they did’t disappoint. Notably, their Bier de Noel ‘Saison Saint Médard’, was incredible… I only had one bottle and immediately regretted not getting more. It was beautifully bready with a hue between amber and brown and what tasted like a modest mixture of seasonal spices that finished bone dry, encouraging you back to the bottle for a second taste.

However much I loved the Bier de Noel, it wasn’t the beer I was chasing… I wanted to know about the Jonquilles. So I spoke to Xavier about it most, and here is what I learned.

Making Jonquilles

I’m going to make this short, their process isn’t too far deviated from others I have written about.

Firstly, its 100% pilsner malt. Good ingredients make good beer, hey. So if you want to make this, start with your saison Dupont base and forget about the specialty malts. Shoot for 7% (or lower like I would). Single infusion mash, anywhere from an hour to 2 hours. With how dry it is, I would suggest to start on the lower side and let your sparge raise the temp slightly to get some more alpha amylase action.

In the kettle add some hops early to keep the boil down, use a low AA% from the old world. Throughout the boil add what you like. This beer is not about bitterness, this is a beer for your yeast to shine, I would keep the hops below 20 IBU, less if you can. The yeast will add the pepper you want. Hour long boil, knock out around 22-25 C (72-77 F).

For fermentation, add a healthy dose of their yeast. Grow some up from their bottles if you can, if not… the saison Dupont strain will work well. Stray away from the Belle Saison styles or the cleaner French Saison strains (WY3711). Pitch your healthy yeast into your tank and set your jackets to 27-28 C (80-82 F). Let fermentation continue at this temperature for at least 5 days.

After a week, transfer your beer off most of its yeast into another container and garde that sucker. By this I mean, hold the beer at a cold temperature for an extended period. At Au Baron, the magic formula is around 6 C (42F) for at least 2 weeks. If this doesn’t make sense to you, split your batch, do a side by side test of your beers… one with the garde one without. You tell me which one is more complex at the end, I have a strong suspicion as to which one will taste better. I spoke about this process a lot and its reasons in the Brasserie Thiriez post; however, Daniel gardes around 12C for 3 weeks.

After its garde, mix in some priming sugar and some more yeast if necessary and package your beer. It is imperative that a beer like this is bottle conditioned, preferably on its side too. If you aren’t bottle conditioning your saisons or Belgian styles they are missing something. Not only does this help the beer achieve the mouthfeel you are looking for, it also promotes a tighter bead in your foam. Once packaged, let it sit warm 20-22C (68-71F) for at least a month. You need to view this step as part of the fermentation, not an ends to a mean.

After that, drink it. Easy. Serve at cellar temp 12-15C (53-59F) to really taste the yeast.

Easy does it

Time and time again, I am blown away by the simplicity surrounding making these beers and the complexity they end up with. Its the provenance that created them, their terroir. If you want to make a good meal, don’t buy your ingredients from a supermarket… and if you want to make a great saison, get your hands on good malt, better yeast and put your watch in the drawer, it will tell you when its ready.


Trois Dames: Location and Yeast

Last week while visiting friends in the French Alps, I looked at my map and realised I was only a 30 minute drive from Switzerland. As an American, I am still working on getting my head around the proximity of many European countries and usually wouldn’t even fathom ‘popping into’ another country for the day to visit a brewery. But when I calculated the travel time (2 hours each way) and the brewery in question (Trois Dames), the idea didn’t seem outlandish, it was actually a no brainer.


Trois Dames is located in a small, maybe sleepy, town of Sainte-Croix in Switzerland. On the the train to there from Yverdon-Les-Bains you get some beautiful panoramic views of the Lac de Neuchâtel as the train climbs 600m (2000ft) up the Jura mountains. As you enter the town, you get a sense of the agricultural inclination of the area. Its a small town, of only about 5,000 people that makes a great setting for a brewery that prefers a little solitude while still being a little connected.

Sainte-Croix train station
Sainte-Croix train station


A short 5 minute walk from the station, the brewery stands as a collection of four buildings seen in the photo below. The main four story building houses the taproom on the ground floor and the solera in the basement while the added-on building (to the left with the red roof) behind contains the brewhouse, bottling line and fermentors. The other two structures are slightly hidden by the photo but one is for storage of packaged beer and the last, certainly most of interest for us is full of barrels, foudres and lots of sour beer.

Brasserie Trois Dames
Brasserie Trois Dames
Tasting room
Tasting room (with a pallet of Sin Frontera just there on the bottom left)


Clean Beer

I got there at lunch time and had a good chance to sit down with Luigi, one of the four man team at Trois Dames, to talk about their clean side fermentations. The brewery produces a solid range of American styles with some French influences. They brew on a 2 vessel Newlands Systems brewhouse with a nice, wide lauter tun you can see below. When we spoke about their process, it all sounded like good brewing practices one would expect from a quality brewery as theirs. Lower mash temps for more fermentable worts, 10-14 day fermentations followed by a short trip to the brite tank for clearing, reuse of clean yeast strains, both dry and liquid, four to five times and a nice big rotary-head filler for minimal oxygen pickup. I got to try a number of their beers but a standout was their new collaboration Berliner-Weisse with Storm&Anchor. Made with fresh pomegranate, it wasn’t the lactic acid bomb that you often get with kettle sours; instead, it had a light, refreshing tartness that made it reliably drinkable.

Clean fermentors
Clean fermentors
bottling line
bottling line (behind the forklift)

Mixed Fermentation and Sours

After lunch, Raphael and I got some time to talk about some of his projects that most interested me. It was interesting to hear how he started making mixed culture beers and how quickly the program has grown. Raphael’s interest was peaked by a friend’s apricot crop. It had a beautiful aroma and he immediately wanted to put some in his beer. So he mixed some of the fruit with one of his amber/brown beers and the result was reminiscent of an Oud Bruin. Its a good story but I’m not going to put it past Raphael that he had many other influences and forays into mixed fermentations. What I do know is that now, the program is growing at such a rate that he can no longer manage it himself and has hired a well known brewer in the industry to take over that side in mid October.

Their process combines the tested techniques of Spanish sherry makers and the Rare Barrel/ Crooked Stave model of transporting wort and fermenting at another location. I wouldn’t say there is a ‘Trois Dames’ method for their sours but I’ll give you an overview. Basically there are two different areas where they make their sour beer. The traditional solera is in the cellar under the house/big building while the rest of the foeders and other barrels are housed in a large wooden freestanding shed behind the production area.

The Solera

The first area we visited was the solera in the basement. As you can see in the photo below, Raphael has a good amount of area to work with and it was nice and cool down there too. Raphael got the solera on the right side going by buying lambic from Belgium and proportionally mixing it with beer of his own. On the ground level he blended 2/3 Lambic with 1/3 house beer, the middle 1/2 and 1/2 and on the top, 1/3 Lambic to 2/3 house beer. It’s a very clever idea but I don’t know how one could buy hundreds of litres of lambic and resist drinking all of it! On the left side of the cellar is a much more eclectic bunch of barrels. From what I got, this side is for playing, you know mixing and matching. It doesn’t work like a traditional solera (empty from he bottom, fill from the top) rather a collection of barrels that can be used for various purposes. I didn’t get much information on them but it seems pretty clear that its a hodgepodge of sour beer. Now, on the other side of the wall on the left is a long corridor that runs the length of the whole room. In time, Raphael is installing a long coolship (similar to Russian River’s) so Trois Dames can start spontaneous fermentations, a really exciting step I know all of us can’t wait for!

Lambic solera on the right, in-house solaria on the left
Lambic solera on the right, in-house solaria on the left

The Sour Shed

After the solera Raphael took me to what I am going to lovingly call the Sour Shed. When we walked in, I realised that the place was much larger than I thought and Trois Dames is in the process of making a load of sour beer. Their process is both efficient and effective, normally working in the following manner. All of the wort for their sours comes from there brewhouse about 20 metres away. It gets pumped the distance into the stainless fermentors you can see in the third photo. These fermentors are jacketed so temperatures can be controlled during primary fermentations. The wort is fermented with commercial strains of brett and lacto or from the dregs out of one of the foudres. Raphael sometimes pitches wort directly into a partially filled foudre for its primary as well. Using the stainless he is able to crash before transferring to collect yeast and clear the beer a little before going into barrels (something Lauren Salazar is a proponent of). I do recall him saying there have been 100% stainless beers he has done but the majority goes into oak. When the time comes for a blend, Raphael has a multitude of options to choose from. With an idea in mind or possibly a barrel with great flavour, he moves beer proportionally into one of his blending tanks, tastes the blend, adds a little sugar and sends it to his sour packaging line. This whole process is very eclectic and lacks the structure you might find in other breweries who make sour beer. However, to me its a little more akin to one big solera crossed with the creativity of a home brewer. In one way the beer does not go through a linear progression from wort to packaging, instead gets moved around learning from its elders or uses the dregs of its elders to ferment. The net volume of the oak is in essence under constant development. On the other hand, Raphael’s lack of structure allows him to play a lot more. Having a collection of different barrels means he is not putting all of his eggs in one basket and instead promoting microbial diversity amongst his beers. All in all, I think they have a lot of fun playing around in there making different blends.

A few foedres
A few foudres
continuing to the right, another foudre with a collection of barrels (the Sin Frontera sherry barrels are at the back and can’t be seen)
to the right once more. Raphael and Mike in front of the sour bottling line and the stainless fermentors
to the right once more. Raphael and Mike in front of the sour bottling line and the stainless fermentors


I have to encourage a visit to anyone who is interested in Trois Dames or their process. They are located in a beautiful part of the world and there is some great pizza across the street.

As always, if you have any more specific questions feel free to email or comment as I could be more helpful in their techniques at a one to one level.

Yeast: Brasserie de Blaugies

About a month ago, my wife and I began our summer travels across western Europe. I strategically planned our first stop in Brussels to see some of her family and so that we could also hire a car and drive to the smaller, more remote farmhouse breweries in the French Flanders and Wallonia. Over a couple of days we were able to visit 3 Fonteinen, De Dolle Brewers, Brasserie Thiriez, Brasserie Dupont, Brasserie de Blaugies and the infamous Sunday-morning-only-bar In de Verzekering tegen de Grote Dorst. It’s a really easy little road trip with heaps of interesting stops along the way. We have been on the road ever since so I will admit this post is a little delayed; however, I had to share some of the things I learned from Kevin at Brasserie de Blaugies.

Many of you may know Blaugies from their scarce, but solid range of saisons coming from a tiny brewhouse in their family home. If their beer hasn’t reached you, maybe you have heard of their recent collaboration with Sean Hill of Hill Farmstead called Vermontoise. Either way, I’ll admit that it took me an embarrassingly long time to find out about them but once I did, I knew I had to visit. Kevin Carlier’s father Pierre-Alex Carlier started Brasserie de Blaugies in 1988 and has only just recently handed over most of the day-to-day brewing work to his son. However, Pierre-Alex is a very active man and continues to be a crucial member of the workforce at the brewery. Only in talking with Daniel Thiriez about them did I realise how influential this tiny operation has been on the education, conservation and proliferation of the Wallonian saison.

Located about 1 hour and 20 minutes from Brussels and 650 meters from the French border, the brewery sits just outside the small town of Blaugies, hence its name. It’s a picturesque little drive through flat farmlands spotted with distant church steeples and villages full of typically cute brick homes with slate roofs. Even just driving in along rue de la frontier (road of the border), I knew why this place has become so special for the many who make pilgrimage here.

When we arrived they were finishing off labelling a batch at their packaging shed across the street from the brewhouse. To give you an idea, we parked in front of Le Forquet, the restaurant that Kevin’s brother runs (open Wed-Sunday), and the shed was just down to the left. Inside the shed was the bottle cleaner, bottling machine, labeller and packaged beer either ageing or awaiting distribution; but, there was no brewhouse. Across the street, I could see their home with a sign out front for the brewery; but again, no brewhouse. I was a little confused.

However, once the work was done for the day Kevin greeted us and took us on a tour of the place. To start, we went towards his house and only at the last minute when I could just see through the small windows in the garage doors, I realised that the entire brewhouse was fitted into a space smaller than a 2 car garage. He opened the doors and inside, there it was. HLT, kettle and later tun macgyvered literally on top of each other next to three fermenters, two double and one single. My immediate thought was how?, so we started talking process.

can't you see it? the brewery is in there
can’t you see it? the brewery is in there

Blaugies uses a proprietary strain of yeast they selected from a yeast bank in Brussels years ago. All of their beers are fermented with this single strain of yeast, no bugs or brett. They take their yeast up to 6-8 generations bottom cropping, inspecting its health under microscope between pitches. When I asked Kevin how they stored it, he simply turned around and grabbed a 5 L glass container from on top of his glycol chiller and smiled. Storing yeast at room temperature is normal if you are going to be using it soon but I thought that with how few fermentors he had, he couldn’t be brewing very often. Wrong. The Blaugies yeast works its magic in about 3-4 days and their beers spend just over a week in their fermentors before going to packaging where they are really aged. While part of this has to do with keeping up with orders and production demands, the other has  to do with their yeast. Kevin said that it wouldn’t even start fermenting if it was under 25 C. Usually he chills his wort to around 27 C and pitches, he turns his jackets on for a tad above 30 C and lets the yeast go. Not surprisingly, he sees activity in the first few hours since pitching. After 2 days the jackets are turned off and the yeast finishes its job within the next two days. Once its finished, the jackets go back on and he crashes for 2-4 more days so he can collect his yeast.

lauter tun and kettle down to the right
lauter tun and kettle down to the right, sorry for the photos… its really hard to get a decent shot of what is happening in there because of its size!
this is the double batch fermentor
this is the double batch fermentor
HLT in the corner and yeast on top of the... I can't remember
HLT in the corner and yeast on top of the… I can’t remember
there are the 2 singles with the latter up to the left
there are the 2 singles with the latter up to the left

I was really shocked by this process. I had heard of home brewers fermenting at these temperatures but I had never met a professional brewer who did. Also, the tank time of his beers is more reflective of IPA and pale ale factories. The beers obviously speak for themselves so… respect. The strain is interesting to work that fast, attenuate so well and flocculate enough to bottom crop with successful results. I really want to do some experiments with it. If you have or know someone who has grown up their dregs I’d love to know more!

The tank time issue was bothering me as we walked across the street to the packaging shed. The beers are moved into containers and rolled there on packaging days. I expressed my interest in the time issue and Kevin pointed out that his bottle conditioning lasts for around 4 weeks before leaving the brewery. When you take this into account along with the shipping times around the world, the significant portion of their maturation takes place in bottle. However, he also admitted that it wasn’t ideal and they would allow more tine if they could but they have some serious problems with matching demand.

packaging shed across the street
packaging shed across the street

He smiled when I asked about a larger brewhouse because as he shared with me after, those plans are well underway. Literally the week after we visited, they were set to begin construction to expand the existing shed an additional 20 meters to fit in a brand new 20 hl brewhouse with something like 6-8 fermentors. As part of the construction, the shed will also include an elevated tasting bar and a glass front facade for light and visibility from the outside. It’s a significant jump, but Kevin said it was years in the making. If all goes to plan, they should be brewing in the new brewhouse around the end of this year.

My wife and I chatted with Kevin for a good time thereafter just about the brewery, his family and the future of the place. He was very gracious and loaded us up with what he had on hand. For me, it was just one of those times when I had to pinch myself.

There is really no telling what is going to happen once they start operating out of the new facility. I imagine their export game will pick up and hopefully we will be able to find their beers slightly easier. However I do know that the old brewhouse is staying just where it is. Kevin was excited to think about the little projects he could do in there once the bigger brewhouse is online. He didn’t go so far to mention introducing any wild yeast but hey, we can all dream.

All the best to Kevin and the family for the extensions!

my take-homes from the trip
my take-homes from the trip

ps, if you ever do make it to Blaugies, its only 11km to Brasserie au Baron which is worth its own trip too. I was no good with time and had to miss it, but wouldn’t dream of making that mistake twice.

Outside the Box: Asturian Sidra

I have to admit, when I first moved to northern Spain in February, I was disappointed. I had left sunny, late summer Sydney for a very cold rainy town of Santander. While the weather didn’t help, the beer was the worst. I mean I would happily take a Miller over a Mahou or Estrella, seriously. The main flavour evoked from any of their mainstream lagers is overwhelmingly corn… great. Im my mind, I had left the promised land and entered a desert.

Thankfully, I now realise that I had judged this place way too quickly. Thanks to the godsend of an independent bottle shop here, I have been able to get my hands on some of the small but growing Spanish craft beers. Naparbier in Pamplona shines brightly among them. A strong sense of local pride [okay very strong] in the Basque country, Barcelona and the province of León for instance have helped independent brewers immensely to produce and distribute a local product. They have a very young market; however, their support is remarkable.

In fact, I have come to learn that the Spanish have a pride for local products of all sorts. I’m not talking about the ‘local’ movement that seems to have thankfully taken in the US, UK and Australia. The Spanish have had this for years. Ask someone on the street about nearly any food and they will tell you where in the county it is made the best. Oh you want paella?  You have to go to Valencia. Light bodied red wines? Rioja. The best sardines? Sañtona. You haven’t lived until you have had pinxos (the name for tapas in the north) from San Sebastián. Don’t bother with a sherry from outside of Jerez.

You could write volumes over the regionality of cuisines here. Its amazing to me not only how proud the residents are of their products but also how they delight in their neighbour’s success. I really respect their almost self constraint to do what they do and do it well while letting others succeed in their own specialty. It’s a mentality that harks back to not being a mile wide and an inch deep from the previous post.

The Spanish have a classificatory system called Denominación de Origen (DO) which protects  certain foodstuff products providing a certification of quality and geographic origin of the countries finest producers. Unlike the French appellations, a DO certification extends beyond wine to a large number of high quality products with specific ingredients and identifiable characteristics derived from a veritable and identifiable source. The system benefits producers and consumers alike. Not only does it protect a region’s tradition or craft, it’s also a benchmark for quality for the consumer.

I love this system immensely. It has guided me to so many great foods and I have learnt the terroir of many of Spain’s finest regions. When you enjoy a food with a DO, you get product and soul, like a Farmhouse beer. One of my favourite DO finds through my musing was sidra from Asturias.


Before I came to Spain, I had been told in passing about the drink and tradition; however, it took me getting here to realise how ‘down my alley’ it was. Sidra is simply the Spanish word for cider; but, in Asturias, one of Spain’s northern provinces, sidra is the defining product of their region and their culture revolves around enjoying it. As a spontaneously fermented cider, sidra has a beautiful crisp dryness with a subtle tartness, so naturally I loved it and it much prefer it to the light lager option.

On my first visit to Gijon, the largest city in Asturias, I saw sidrerias everywhere. A sidreria is a bar where they serve sidra, which due to it’s serving process requires an experienced server. The thing that was strange is that outside of Asturias, I hadn’t seen one such place. It was weird, only a 1 hour drive away, the people of Santander in Cantabria couldn’t care less about sidra but a stone’s throw away was brick and mortar infrastructure to meet local demand. In fact when my wife and I visited one of the Lagares (literally a mill) to see the process we were told that over 90% of the sidra production in Asturias stays in Asturias. These are big productions for not a huge population, the Asturias simply love their product. Sidra from the region has its own DO board with an informational english website here.

After another trip to Gijon which included visiting an old, out of commission farmhouse lagare, I started to think about what I could take away from these producers for the benefit of Farmhouse brewing. With a spontaneous fermentation there is an obvious connection that I wanted to explore; however, I think we have greater lessons to lean from the DO of Asturian sidra which helps give this product its soul.

Process, Fermentation and Service

Sidra begins it’s life in regulated orchards in the hills and mountains across Asturias. Some lagares own their orchards while others purchase theirs from certified growers. It’s great, when you drive around the region you pass orchard after orchard whose fruits you can just tell end up as sidra. Asturians have been producing sidra for hundreds of years and while they have honed and modernised the process for production volume, it fantastically hasn’t changed much at all.

During harvest these trees get their apples shaken off of them and transported to the lagare. The farmers dump the apples out of the trucks into these huge collection troughs that end up looking like organised mounds of apples. These hills of fruit then get sprayed with heaps of water to propel them into concrete canals where the apples float the current towards the presses. As the fruit rides this stream they get a light and natural wash with the water that carries them. They then go into a little elevator which transports them to a sorting table where trained eyes pick out the bad apples.

Immediately after this the apples drop into a mill and get shredded and pumped to the presses. A the lagare I visited, Castañón, they used a modern cylindrical press to get the max out of their apples. From here, the must is pumped directly into their huge temperature controlled fermentors. That’s it. Producers rely on the natural yeasts and bacterias that lived on the skins of the apples for fermentation. They never add yeast or wash the apples with anything other than water, in fact they aren’t allowed to according to the DO.

Here is an old school mill
Here is an old school mill in the roof of an old farmhouse

Because of these natural yeasts, fermentation occurs over a few months meaning the first sidra of the season hits the market around the new year. During fermentation however, the producer samples each tank and occasionally blends more acidic ones with less acidic or a drier with a sweeter to achieve their house flavour. Also, the temperature control allows for a producer to encourage certain growth and compound production. This varies across producer but since they rely mainly on a mix of brettanomyces and saccharomyces they usually hover around the 18-high 20’s celsius mark.

When a tank has reached maturation and an appropriate level of dryness the producer will send the sidra to packaging. It is packaged still in a green bottle with a cork. Every producer in the region uses the exact same bottle so that they can be reused by any other producer for years. Castañón packages around 80% of their product into recycled bottles every year. Packaging doesn’t happen all at once for the whole year; instead, the matured sidra waits in its vessel until the producer needs more stock. So throughout the year you can notice slight differences from longer fermentation and maturation times as well as small differences in the residual carbonation levels from different packaging runs. While no secondary fermentation occurs in the bottle for carbonation, any beverage at atmospheric pressure still retains a small volume of CO2. The hotter a liquid gets, the more it will release of that small carbonation so a sidra packaged in the winter will have slightly more life than one packaged in the summer. This rule holds true for beer too. Ask any brewer, or better yet blender about atmospheric carbonation and they will tell you about this baseline carbonation which must be accounted for in bottle conditioning.

The generally flat product necessitates the specific serving procedure referenced before. Asturias like to drink their sidra with a little bit of vida (life) but to tease out this innate carbonation, the drink must be agitated enough to release it. Traditionally the drink is then served as pictured below, with a server pouring the drink from above his head and ‘catching’ it well below his waist.

these guys are the cool kids in Asturias

The small pressure created by the substance hitting the lowered glass releases the CO2. Its awesome, the sidra turns a milky white and you have about a 5 second window to consume it before all that CO2 moves out of the substance. This means that you really end up taking shots of the stuff in about 100ml equivalents. When you are ready for your next drink, you call the server over, he pours again, you drink again and the process repeats all over the bar. When you watch this, you start to understand how so much of the stuff can be consumed in such a small regionality. The service and consumption of sidra is total pageantry.

From a brewing perspective however, I love the independence the drink is given. Year after year, these producers rely on their native yeasts and bacterias to produce their house flavour, similar to lambic brewers. They have found this respectful balance between making their product and at the same time letting it make itself.

At the bottom of each sidra bottle is a small yeast cake. While I would love to break out the microscope and see whats in it, its pretty easy to pick out a nice blend of brett, saccharomyces and lactic bacteria. If you are in NYC, you can head to 508 Gastrobrewery to try their saison, The Hop Whisperer, which uses sidra yeast from the same lagare I visited, Castañón. In the mean time however, I’m using some of it to help along my sourdough starter but Ill have to wait for the results of that.

I recently heard Jean Van Roy of Cantillon on the Brewing Network podcast, The Sour Hour (a fantastic resource btw) say that you can brew spontaneous beers anywhere in the world. While I knew this was the case, sidra is a great example of an entire tradition remarkably similar to lambic tradition that really stands to prove this.


While I do love this drink, I love even more the culture that surrounds it. From the respect with which it is made to the specialised bars, servers and drinking technique, sidra truly represents more than a drink. In protecting the production with the DO, the Spanish recognise and respect this culture. While there are a lot of differences between making sidra and making beer, Farmhouse brewers specifically can learn from the sense of soul evoked from sidra.

Firstly, it’s regionality. Sidra comes from a certain place. Not only are its ingredients local but also the yeast. While Farmhouse brewers generally have a dedication to local yeast, I really think we could do more to encourage local production of raw materials. Not every latitude is suited for hop or grain production, however we can at least dedicate to use the most local ingredients. If your local producers yield inferior product, we can try to work with them and support them anyway before turing to international producers. This is far harder to do than it sounds, but I am merely advocating a mentality shift that could lead to a raw material shift. Customers love it when brewers use their local coffee roaster for their stouts, or even if a local farmer picks up their grain instead if throwing it away. There are small choices brewers can make which pay homage to this idea. The further down the road you go, the more your beer is an actual product of a place.

Secondly, it’s service. This step of the process is often overlooked by brewers. What does it look like when a customer receives your beer? What glassware is it in? How is it poured? I don’t want brewers to start packing flat beer and dudes to learn to pour from over their head… that would probably result in a lot of spilled beer getting caught in the huge beards of craft beer bartenders. Instead, I do think we can learn from the event which is drinking sidra. It’s special not only because of what it is but also because of how it is served. For a brewer, we can look to the Belgians who strictly advocate for branded glasses not only for marketing but also for the specific designs of glassware which accentuate their beer. Look also to to lambics, poured carefully from their wicker baskets which help keep their yeast sediments squarely at the bottom of the bottle. These differences evoke a sense that the beverage is different.

For brewers, many of these things are out of the question due to their structure or current production demands. If that is the case for you, then think of it as a thought experiment. These Asturians have elevated their beloved drink to something which induces a real sense of place. They have produced a beverage which is greater than the sum of its parts. Every bottle contains not just fermented fruit juice but also the soul of it’s producer and its region. To me, and I would hypothesise the consumer too, its the latter which is farm more important.

Yeast: Brasserie de la Senne

A few weeks back I was lucky to spend a great deal of time in Brussels. The city is fantastic if you have never been. It embodies many of my favourite things – beautiful shopfronts, cultural diversity and fantastic beer.

On the latter, I found it surprisingly easy to locate beers from Brasserie de la Senne, another one of my large inspirations.

If you have never heard of Yvan de Beats & Bernard Leboucq or their brewery, then I would take a second to google their story. Bernard is an established brewer and the creator of the Brussels favourite Zinnebir. Yvan is known to many brewers around the world not only for his beers but also his historical work. In the book Farmhouse Ales by Phil Marowski, Yvan wrote an essay on the history of saisons. He has written and spoken on this and related subjects around the world. Just by googling his name you get a sense of his impact. Brewers like Chad Yakobson from Crooked Stave cite Yvan as the source on all things yeast and saison. Basically, Yvan wrote the book on saison, and he also wrote the book. For more information on them or their brewery, this article is a good place to start.
Very impressive head retention!
Very impressive head retention!
For me, walking into Brasserie de la Senne a few Mondays back was like an art history student visiting the Prado. On that day I was lucky to catch Yvan in-between meetings and get a quick tour of the space and chat about yeast for a bit. These were precious moments for me and there is one stand-out differentiating factor that I learned worth sharing here. Yvan and Bernard have designed their entire brewery around yeast. From the smaller, sometimes common things such as having equipment set up for step mashing and bottling conditioning to the larger and completely unique fermentation vessels.
Their wide, shallow fermenters
Their wide, shallow fermentors
Pictured above, these custom vessels are designed specifically to keep excessive hydrostatic pressure off of their yeast. Hydrostatic pressure is similar the pressure felt at the bottom of the ocean. In brewing, it describes the pressure felt by the yeast and beer at the bottom of a tank in respect to that at the top.

This pressure has negative effects on the long term health and viability of the yeast as well as ester production (see this). In very tall cylindroconical fermenters the yeast at the bottom experiences huge pressures that can rupture the yeast cell walls and rapidly decrease cell viability. In order to combat this in long term yeast harvesting and repitching, a brewer must collect his yeast as soon as they can. This is a relative description because each brewer has a different reason to collect at the time they do as their own balance between the amount of yeast to collect and its viability.

Not only does a premature collection of yeast pull out cells still working on attenuating a beer, but also it biases the lower attenuators who do their work and drop out. Within each strain there are certain cells that get eating away and once they are done fall to the bottom. Others work slower on the wort gradually consuming available sugars and don’t flocculate to the bottom until there is nothing else left. By cropping your yeast early, you select the faster working ones that are more reluctant to stick around and make that beer nice and dry.

These tanks, as you can see, are pretty space costly and would be difficult to fit a whole bunch of them in any area to meet a larger production demand; however, de la Senne solves this problem in a rather clever yet traditional way. Instead of allowing primary fermentation in a single vessel and then moving to a conditioning tank for a few days, they carry out their primary ferment for 4-6 day in their custom tanks and then move the beer to a colder storage area into their garde (storage) tanks for two to three weeks. While it sounds more like a lager approach, recall brasserie Thiriez had a similar approach to allow for the continual fermentation of their beers creating drier and more balanced flavours.

Its a slow process and one certainly born of respect for their yeast as the maker of their beer. If you get the chance to visit Belgium, de la Senne is a worthy stop. If not, word on the street is they are increasing brewing capacity in a big way in the next 18 months so hopefully that means a little more for the rest of us!
I loved this sticker
I loved this sticker

Time & Yeast: Brasserie Thiriez

On my first day at Brasserie Thiriez last week I spent a solid chunk of my time labelling by hand a batch of bottles whose labels would not cooperate with their labeling machine. The beer was called Train to Mars and about half of it was heading to the States via Shelton Bros and the other half going to a bottle shop in Paris the next day. After a few hours I started to read the label and its subtitle caught my eye…

“A Saison de Mars hopped with Mosaic, Aramis, Simcoe and fermented with the world famous Thiriez house yeast.”


Here is a photo of the label,

some tagline
some tagline…


As a brewer, I have used a *very* similar strain for dry, hoppy saisons in the past with some pleasant results. In fact, it was the yeast that led me to Thiriez in the first place by way of Jester King.

However, I don’t think I realised until then how prominent the strain was worldwide. If you wish to know more about its influence, All About Beer posted an article last month here.

So here I was at Thiriez, having the opportunity to ask every question about the strain and fermentation I could think of. You should see my notebook now, nearly every page with some scribbling of some temperature or trick. However, the two things that struck me most about Thiriez were the yeast itself and the fermentation times.


Daniel in front of the taproom and old brewery
Daniel in front of the taproom and old brewery

When I learned to homebrew I was told that my beer would ferment for 5-14 days after which I could prime it, bottle it and await a further 2-3 weeks for a secondary fermentation in the bottle for carbonation. I tend to think that most English speaking home brewers learned something similar. In the professional craft-beer industry, a fermentation time of 5-10 days would be normal if not even a little long. I can’t help but think that the sheer number of pro-brewers starting as home brewers has largely influenced this for all intents and purposes industry standard.

So when I got to Thiriez, saw 6 tanks and quickly did some math I assumed that Daniel would be  brewing at least 3 batches a week. Then I had a look around at the temps of these tanks and the documented information. Some of these beers were brewed 3 weeks beforehand and were not even crashed yet! [crashing referring to chilling to near-freezing temperatures to assist with flocculation and beer clarity] When I started talking to Daniel about this ‘inefficiency’, it completely changed the way I saw clean pure culture fermentation.


Daniel selected his strain from a lab in Brussels when he started his brewery. He knew the qualities he wanted and the lab grew up a few cultures for experimentation. The one they chose was a single strain, meaning it is not a proportional mix of a few different cultures; rather, a single cell slowly grown up into pitchable quantities. It’s a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, so it’s not what we might call ‘wild’ producing funky flavours.

The yeast has gained popularity for its versatility and the flavour compounds it produces. The All About Beer article covers this well. Daniel uses his yeast for almost all of the beers he makes. the blond, ambree, hoppy blonde, 2.9% table beer, white and most of the seasonals are all fermented with the strain. While there is an unmistakable house flavour, each beer has its own yeasty nuances none too overpowering which varying from banana-clove in the White to a spicy pepper in the table beer. It’s pretty amazing tasting these side by side and seeing what this strain can do. A yeast like US-05, the dry Safale American ale strain, has nothing on the Thiriez yeast’s subtlety and variation. However, the main factor in these flavours comes from differing fermentation schedules harnessing or releasing certain compounds at certain temperatures to create the trademark Thiriez balance.

Top of the brewhouse and 4 40hl FV's
Top of the brewhouse and 4x40hl FV’s


As I mentioned before I was initially shocked to see how long Daniel’s beers spent in the tank. The normal fermentation time at Thiriez is four weeks before packaging then another two weeks following for bottle conditioning, 2-3 times longer than your standard APA/IPA brewpub or brewery. Daniel’s reasoning for this comes largely from a respect and care for his yeast. After 18 years working with the same strain, he does not like to shock it with quick temperature changes which stall the yeast’s work. Additionally while the major bulk of fermentation has completed in less than 5 days, he allows the yeast more time at slowly decreasing temperatures to continue its conversion resulting not only in a drier beer but also encourages the gradual consumption of harsher compounds into more subtle balanced ones more often associated with longer fermentation temperatures.

Seeing the results of a fermentation such as this one made me reflect on mine and the larger industry’s current tendency towards 2 week fermentations. While I cannot trace the exact history, I believe it has to do mostly from our English language. The home brewing movement in the States and Australia grew largely in part to a little help from our friends the British. While the rest of the world had conglomerated into a few light-lager breweries the English were experiencing a revival of its traditional styles. Books were written, research was getting done and the English reestablished a dying culture with their ESB’s and porters.

With our adoption of their techniques was an acceptance of their yeast and yeast care. Typical English yeast is highly flocculant and a low attenuator. Its like a shift-worker, gets in, gets work done and gets out as soon as it can. It leaves a spectacularly clear beer but also unfermented sugars and undesirable compounds such as diacetyl. With this yeast a fermentation past 5-7 days is useless. The yeast falls out of of suspension and declares its job is done.

Belgian yeast in contrast, behaves somewhat more similar to wild yeasts with a slower fermentation. In general, wild yeast consumes easily available sugars at similar rates to normal brewing yeast. However, wild yeast also contains an innate fight or flight tendency. Once the easy sugars are consumed the yeast does not fall out ready to die; instead, it pushes on less rapidly converting more complex sugars in attempts of self preservation. At the same time, these wild yeasts convert some of the harsh undesirable compounds into more subtle and complex flavours. This is not an exact science requiring a brewer to know their yeast and about proper barrel ageing; but, it’s a large part of the art of ageing and blending for sours and barrel aged beers.

While Belgian strains are not wild yeast by any means, I came to understand that they fall somewhere in between the extremes of English yeast and wild strains. Their characteristics bear resemblance to parts of both sides. When this struck me, I realised that I had certainly not given enough time to many of my fermentations. I had been demanding the yeast to work on my production timeline instead of allowing it to do its work in its time. All we can do as brewers really is create a happy, healthy environment for the yeast in the wort because the rest is simply not up to us.

It is often said that brewers make wort, yeast makes beer. It’s about time I start to believe it.